Are You Ready To Take The CIH Exam?


One of the common mistakes safety professionals make when seeking CIH certification is timing and preparedness when studying for the CIH exam. A question that often gets asked is "when do I know if I'm ready to try to pass the exam?" Most safety professionals will seek either on-line or classroom courses to help prepare themselves for the exam. It is highly recommended that you complete one of these helpful courses. The following are five helpful tips to decide if you are ready to pass the exam:

1. Have you taken an exam prep course? These can be a great way to either kick off your studying or to review the material if you have already been preparing. If you feel that you have prepared adequately before taking the course, you may only need an additional 2-4 weeks of studying. If the course was your first introduction to exam preparation, it is in your best interest to take the time needed (at least 2-3 months) to review the materials from the course and learn any concepts that you have not yet mastered.

2. If you take a CIH prep course, be sure to make flash cards of concepts as well as important facts that you will need to have memorized. Decide on a certain number of flash cards that you will master each day, then put in the time to reach your goal. Once you feel you are comfortable with the material and you can recall approximately 90% of the material from your flash cards, you can feel confident that you will be prepared to take the exam. Of course this is only true if your flash cards cover the right material, so take the time to make sure you are studying the right material! Flash cards should cover each of the topics that will be covered on the exam.

3. Most courses provide example questions to help you prepare for the exam. You should be able to easily go through these questions before you sit for the real exam. If you find yourself struggling with several of these questions or concepts, you may not quite be ready to sit for the exam. Ideally you would like to be able to score at or above 90% for any practice exams or test you take prior to taking the real test.

4. Perhaps the best test to gauge your readiness for the exam is if you are able to not only learn the material, but to also teach it to someone else. Once you feel confident that you can explain the material to someone else without having to rely on your notes, you will know that you have really mastered the concepts.

5. Make sure you understand the formulas that will be provided to you on the exam and how to use them. These formulas are essential for passing the exam however, if you do not understand them then they will not be of much use come test day. Perhaps equally as important, make sure you are comfortable with the calculator that you will be using on test day. You should be using the same calculator you plan to use on your test as you are studying and preparing. Make certain that the calculator you are using is on the ABIH list of approved calculators. If you get to the test center and learn that your calculator is not approved, this could prove devastating, not to mention cost you valuable testing time, if you are forced to use a calculator that you are not familiar with.

Remember the goal for most people is to pass the exam, not score 100%. However, you still want to aim to score well above the actual required passing score to ensure you have the needed confidence and preparedness going into the exam. Give yourself the time needed to properly prepare for the exam. Master each of the concepts in that will be tested and come test day you will be confident and ready! Good luck, and remember people pass the CIH exam every year. You can too!


Source by Kevin Abernethy

Why Molds Need Sprues and Vents


Mold making and casting are relatively simple processes. Make a mold of the model you want to reproduce and then pour the casting material into the mold. Wait for it to cure properly before extracting, and viola your artwork is ready!

However, certain technicalities also creep into the picture. For instance, you have to choose the right mold making and casting products that are suitable for the job. At times, release agent, fillers and other items are also required.

Another important point is that as the casting material poured through the sprue, displaces the air in the mold, some air can easily get trapped inside and the casting material will be unable to completely fill the mold. These air pockets cause hollow spaces which can result in an unsightly and deformed cast.

So, how will you get rid of these air traps and pockets when casting silicone rubber or polyurethane resin?

The answer is simple – make vent holes! These are holes that are created in the sides of the mold usually on the high spots of the mold where air tends to first migrate. This allows air to escape from the mold when casting material is being poured inside. Now the casting material can reach all the corners and spots in the mold sans any gaps.

The location and number of vents is important. The holes are ideally placed along the top surface of the mold as air tends to rise to the top of the mold. It's best to create vents all along the top perimeter of the mold while ensuring that you cover all the high spots. Keep them an inch or so apart. If you are making sprues on the sides of the mold, ensure that they taper up or else the casting material will easily flow out of the mold!

How to?

Vents are made by drilling holes in the surface of the finished mold. Alternatively, you can even insert hollow tubes during the mold making process itself. When removed later, the tunnel will serve as a sprue.

The same vent holes can serve a dual purpose. Apart from working as a vent for air to exit the mold, the hole can also be used as an alternate sprue, to add liquid casting material into the mold. Think injection molding!

In case the same vent is used as a sprue hole and vent, it should be located at the highest point of the mold and be large enough to allow the air to escape even while the material is being poured.

Carefully pour the silicone rubber or polyurethane resin into the sprue hole and continue till it overflows from all the vents. This shows that the material has displaced all the air inside. The material will cure in the vents too and can be cut be cut off after demolding.

Please not that only closed molds require vents. If the mold is open at the top (will become the flat bottom of the cast), the air can escape easily and the material will fill out without requiring any vents.


Source by Aarron Barry

How to Lay Hardcore Under Concrete Floor Beds


Hardcore is the material put under floors. It is used as a sub base after building the foundation wall to make up levels before casting the ground floor concrete slab. The recommended is hard stone ballast or quarry waste that should not pass a sieve of more than six inches when broken down. This shall be free of weeds, roots, vegetable soil, clay, black cotton soil or other unsuitable materials. Broken stones or brick cuttings can also be used as hardcore.

To lay hardcore under floor beds, use well graded smaller pieces mixed with fine materials. This will give a dense compact mass after consolidation. This shall be laid in layers not exceeding ten inches of consolidated thickness. Sufficient fine materials shall be added to each layer to give a gradation necessary to obtain a solid compact mass after rolling. A ten tonne smooth wheeled or two tone vibrating roller should be used to compact each layer.

Compact each layer with eight passes of the roller when laying hardcore under floor beds. Add sufficient water with every pass to obtain maximum compaction. To each layer add a fine layer of sand or quarry dust forced into the hardcore by a rolling vibrator. All the materials used must always be dry to avoid caking or stickiness. This may allow pockets of air or free spaces. This may sink when the hardcore is loaded with weight. If the sand is absorbed into the holes between hardcore then keep compacting.

Thoroughly compact the hardcore filling under floor beds until sand is not absorbed. The top surface should be made level. The levels are done or graded to the required falls. After this is done a blinding layer of similar broken materials is added. This is of at least one inch in thickness. A ten tonne roller is used to smoothen the surface. This mass of hardcore is now ready for anti termite, damp proofing and mesh reinforcement material before concreting the ground floor slab.


Source by Andrew Karundu

Sandblasting Explained: The Usage, Materials And Process To Produce A Piece Of Art


A lot of people have heard of the term sandblasting. There are even people who make use of sandblast resist products as giveaways to their events and other parties. In addition, there are some people who consider sandblast stencil as a new form of art. Whatever it is, sandblasting is a generalized term which is used to describe an action of forcing minute bits of material at a very high velocity in order to etch or clean a surface.

Materials Used

Despite its name though, there are now several other materials that can be used instead of sand. On the list of these probable materials are copper slag, steel grit, powdered abrasives, walnut shells, and even small bits of coconut shell. For several years, these alternate materials have long been used. Each of the materials always had its own purpose for being sandblasted as well as a benefit which is why they are being used. But it was only recently that these materials were used instead of sand to create an etched piece of art.

One material that can not be used for this though is diamonds. This is because they are harder than all the other suggested materials. As long as the process is done in the same manner, it is still considered as sandblasting. The reason why sand is no longer being used for this is because it causes a lung disease known as silicosis. This is due to the extended inhalation of the dust which was created by the sand material used.

The Sandblasting Process

In order to do this technique, there are some things that need to be done as a precaution. Since there is a threat for inhaling the dust, the process is done in a carefully controlled room that has appropriate ventilation. In addition, the person doing the process needs to wear the right protective outfit to protect him. There should also be a substitute air supply for the successful completion of the process.

Tools Needed

Traditionally, the equipment involves three various parts which are the abrasive, blaster nozzle, and an air compressor. When using the machine to etch or clean a small object, a fourth piece of material is needed as to hold the glass in place. Lastly, a collector is also necessary so that the excess dust can be collected.

Purpose of Sandblasting

Primarily, this is a process for two different purposes. The first is to abruptly clean the surface of an object. This has long been a practice in the United States and was even patented in 1870. For this purpose, it is used to prime a surface before a sealant or paint can be applied. Apart from cleaning a surface, this technique is more popularly used to carve or etch a design onto a piece of glass or a similar material such as plastic. Many have found that decorating glass results to a beautiful piece of art. In order to achieve this though, there are two options: sandblast or to etch by hand. The second option is more expensive and time-consuming though, which is why this method is clearly the preferred option.


Source by Connor R Sullivan

What's an LED Light Made Of?


An LED or light emitting diode is an optoelectronic device, which can emit light when it is properly biased. The early light emitting diodes used to emit a light beam of rather low intensity, but the modern ones make up for this set back by proper illumination or emission of light. The light emitted by modern LED's are in numerous wavelengths, and hence they offer a wide range of colors for us to choose from. The main advantages of LED's are their limited power consumption and very high efficiency. They are pretty robust, rugged and tough enough to withstand mechanical shocks given to them, they have a very quick switching response and they are very compact.

A light emitting diode is almost similar in construction to a pn diode; the light emitting diode is made of a semi-conducting material such as silicon or germanium, which is doped with p-type and n-type impurities in order to get a pn formation. The LED usually consists of the following parts, an epoxy lens or case to cover the semi conducting material, wire bonds, reflective cavity, semi conductor die and anvil post which is also known as the lead frame.

When a potential is applied to this device a current flows through the junction resulting due to the recombination of the holes and electrons, the recombination results in the release of energy in the form of light photons.

The production of the LED's actually began with red and infrared devices, which contained gallium arsenide. Now many ranges of colors are available when we look for a particular type of LED. Advancements in material science and physics have lead to the manufacture of LED's with wavelengths shorter then ever.

The light emitting diodes are built upon an n- type substrate with an electrode attached to the p- type layer deposited on the surface. Sapphire substrate is of common use in modern light emitting diodes. Most of the materials for the manufacture of light emitting diodes have a high index of refraction. Much light is reflected at the material air surface interface.

The usual red LED's most of us have come across are made up of gallium arsenide phosphide, the orange ones can also be made up of the same material, zinc selenide is used for the manufacture of blue LED's, in this way many chemical compounds form the raw materials for the manufacture of LED's of different colors.

Next time you use an LED, now you know what they are made of!


Source by Lydia Quinn

How To Install A Bocce Court


Bocce is a ball game that dates back to the age of the Roman Empire; it used to be a sport played on dirt. It required special skills to win the game on dirt, because throwing the ball to the target on dirt was not an easy thing to do.

The complexity of being able to roll the ball through the dirt to the set target turned many off from the game. The idea of ​​dirt-free bocce courts made the sport interesting to all clans who wished to play the game, because they did not have the need to deal with the hefty task of playing in the dirt. The sport has survived to date due to leveled bocce courts. Eventually, it has continued to be one of the most liked backyard sport and people of all ages play this game. This game is played as a tourney, league or commonly as a social leisure. There are famed Bocce Champions as well.

The bocce ball game when played in specially designed bocce courts provide players with great recreational experience.

Materials Making the Court

The standard recommendations for building a bocce court consisted of lumbar, drainage and gravel. The bocce court has the backstops and sideboards made out of weather-resistant lumbar. The play area in the court is compacted with crushed stone dust, natural gravel or clay. A tiny fortune invested in an excellent drainage system enhances the playability and longevity of the leveled surface.

The materials used to build the bocce court can differ from one to another based on personal choice and convenience. However, there are recommendations about the choice of materials and commonly applied dimensions for the court.

Layout Dimensions

The dimensions of the bocce court can follow the width range anywhere from 8 through 14 feet and the length can be somewhere from 60 to 90 feet. The recommended size for private backyard court has dimensions reading 10 x 60 feet. However, municipal courts or those meant for community bocce events, tourneys and leagues are set at larger dimensions at 12 x 76 feet up to 13 x 90 feet.

Surface Quality

The game is all about rolling the ball. It is important for the court to be flat and straight to ensure complete roll of the ball with minimal or zero bounce. The goal is to create a court with zero bumpy surfaces. Coarse material renders the surface too loose eventually hindering free rolling of ball. Based on personal budget and project affordability, one might have to do the best to invest in materials that form a smooth firm surface.

Post-play dent restoration becomes difficult on surfaces formed with large particles. Downpour during heavy rain leads to stagnant water and drainage therefore becomes difficult. Therefore, the best recommended surface material is one that consists of small particles. Eventually, minimal upkeep restores playability.

Crushed Oyster Blends versus Traditional Options

Crushed oyster shells blend well with few other natural materials enhancing the quality of binding, therefore, providing excellent drainage. The traditionally recommended material is stone dust, but increasing number of luxury bocce courts, use oyster shells blend with clay to bring in premium leveling.

When it comes to using stone dust for the surface, the dust is supposed to be fines. Coarser particle size of the gravel will make the field bumpy. Clay is an alternative in regions where appropriate particle size of sand dust becomes unavailable.

In regions where heavy rain is common, the downpour can lead to standing water. Therefore, excellent drainage system becomes essential to restore playability of the court at the earliest.

Procure Appropriate Perimeter and Surface Materials

Procure pressure-treated (or) ground-contact perimeter rails of appropriate size or pressure-treated (or) ground-contact perimeter posts of appropriate sizes for the external perimeter as needed.

Buy contact points for the end walls in the perimeter rails with appropriate Trex decking lengths. Procure pressure treated or standard perimeter caps, fasteners, lag screws, washers, and square head decking screws to strengthen the structure. For setting the drainage in small courts, sleeve drain tubing that provides minimum of 60 'of 3 "perforation / corrugation is used. The corrugation size should be more for bigger courts.

Purchase limestone or class 2-road base as needed to fill the depth of the court base. The surface material for the field can be appropriate sized sand dust / gravel, clay, or oyster shell blend as per personal choice. The appropriate perimeter chosen for the court can vary considering the private or community usage targeted for the court. The quality of the soil should be favorable to digging and installing of postholes.

The Installation of The Bocce Court

The perimeter, the length and width of the field, are marked using the post or plank styles. In the plank perimeter style, it is a common approach to double up with the 2 "planks or by using 3" or 4 "thickness straight lumbar. In the perimeter marking process using poles, posts are commonly dug in per 5 'or 4' . In both the post and plank finishes, capping improves aesthetics.

Cement surrounds are increasingly becoming common in environments that face extremes of climate. In such conditions, concrete perimeters work best. Wood or composite liner finishes in the inner regions of the concrete boundaries saves the balls from suffering constant abrasions. Setting the bumper in concrete with appropriate liners are a permanent solution to avoid abrasions.

Dig out the top soil to nearly 10 "in the perimeter and fill the area with limestone or class 2-road base. Drilling, driving nails, and appropriate centering ensures rebar support thus strengthening the structure. Good quality finishing at the fasteners is important, because if the fastener fails particles get in between the railing and repair gets to be expensive.

Back walls are set up for rebounding. Rubber fenders or sheet steel is the commonly used finish for the end walls in bocce courts. Trex decking is an alternative for better finishes as well.

Care should be devoted to creating a leveled court with the appropriate surface blends and tamping. Appropriate buffer placed in the court absorbs shocks created by overshot balls. Court markings and foul lines as needed are marked on the sideboard. Community-bocce-courts require facilities that permit the usage of wheelchairs by disabled people. The final stage of Installation involves setting up of ball racks and scoreboards. Glare-free lighting in place ensures playability after sunset.


Source by Sharmela Mukuntha Krishnan

Neoprene Koozies Vs Polyurethane Koozies: What's the Difference?


Promotional Can Coolers are a great way to get your personalized logo, graphics, or message into the hands of your target audience. They are an economic and functional solution for your next personal or business marketing campaign. Choose from a variety of designs, choosing color, size, and material. There is a large selection of colors to match the theme of your special event, or to help highlight your custom printed image. There are also two sizes of can cooler to choose from, which depends on the material it is constructed out of: the neoprene can coolers hold only 12oz beverages while the Polyurethane Foam holds 12oz or 16oz beverages. Each of these personalized can coolers can be manufactured from either three millimeter thick Neoprene or polyurethane foam. Both of these designs feature superior comfort, insulation, and style.

The printed Neoprene can coolers are made of a thinner material, fit all 12oz cans, and have a large 2.5 "HX 2.4" W print area. This is because neoprene is a type of synthetic rubber that will maintain its insulation despite the thickness of the material, as well as being extremely flexible and durable. However, unlike other rubber-like materials, neoprene is much more affordable, making it suitable for a broad variety of uses like: wet suits, laptop sleeves, and dishwashing gloves. Alternately, the polyurethane foam material is slightly thicker but with a different construction. This makes it suitable for 12-16oz cans, long neck bottles, and water bottles. Polyurethane has a number of uses that depend on the form that the material takes. Depending on how it is processed, polyurethane can be a thick sturdy plastic, a thin sheet, or a foam .. Polyurethane foam comes in two basic constructions: open cell and closed cell. Open cell polyurethane foam allows air to pass easily through the material, making it comfortable and suitable for mattress pads or seat cushions.

The polyurethane foam construction in these can coolers is actually a closed cell foam, meaning it has bubbles of gas trapped in the material. This makes it a good insulator, but also makes it a little thicker than the solid neoprene. The polyurethane foam can coolers allow a 2.5 "Width x 2.25" Height print area, which is slightly smaller than the neoprene design. Regardless of the material you choose for your can coolers, the quality of printed images or text will not be affected. It is often hard to find a promotional product that will not only attract the attention of your target audience, but also incline them to pick it up and use it. Can coolers are a great idea for promotional giveaways or as unique party favors because they are functional and can be easily folded to fit in your pocket. This will encourage your guests to bring your promotional product home and save it for further use. Choose these personalized can coolers for your next business function or organizational event, because they will provide the type of logo or brand visibility that is essential to a promotional campaign.


Source by Amin Ramjee

5 Keys of a Successful Fiberglass Pool Installation


In principle, Fiberglass Pools may seem to be the easiest type of pool to install. Just dig a hole and drop it in … right? In theory that's correct, but it's not quite that simple. In fact, installers make mistakes all the time, and a poorly installed pool makes for an unhappy pool customer. So if you are considering the purchase of a fiberglass pool you're in luck. We're about to discuss the 5 Keys to a successful fiberglass pool installation. Let's jump right in!

Key # 1: A Solid Foundation
This may seem like a no-brainer but it is the culprit behind the failure of many pool installations. Here are a couple things to watch out for:
o Setting the pool shell on disturbed soil- When the hole is being dug, if the excavator accidentally digs too deep there is a tendency to build that area back up with the same soil. That's a big no no! The area must be brought up to grade with a compactable base material. If this is not done correctly, the ground will eventually settle and so will the pool. It does not take a brain surgeon to know that means trouble.
o Uncompacted base material- After the hole is excavated a leveling material such as sand or gravel is dumped in the hole and is leveled as a base for the pool shell to rest on. If this material is not properly compacted the pool will settle over time.
These problems can be easily avoided by the contractor by taking the necessary time to insure the pool rests on a solid foundation. We have written extensively on this topic and are proponents of clean crushed gravel as a base material.

Key # 2: Sound Pool Leveling Methods
Because a fiberglass pool is a one piece unit it is not realistic to expect that it will be perfectly level. The industry standard states that the pool can be up to one inch out of level in forty feet. We shoot to get the pool within a quarter but will settle for a half-inch. I have seen installers will use any means under the sun to get the pool shell level and some methods are perfectly fine, and others are frankly kind of scary.
We teach that the best method to level a fiberglass pool is to completely lift the pool out of the hole and either add or take away material to get the pool to the desired level. We also teach to walk the pool floor after the shell is set to insure the entire pool is resting on base material without voids. These two techniques will insure that the pool is not only level, but resting in its natural state and free of disproportionate stress at any point.

Key # 3: Sound Plumbing
What we're really talking about here is the "L" word: leaks! Yes it is a dirty word, especially in the pool business. There are 3 things an installer should do to protect against leaks:
o Secure the plumbing- Because fiberglass pools have a tremendous amount of backfill material that can settle over time, it's necessary to secure the plumbing to insure that it does not move. Plumbing settlement results in leaky fittings in the pool and is a major pain to repair. We tie our plumbing up with cable to protect against any settlement.
o Use rigid PVC pipe- There are two predominant types of PVC used around inground pools, flex pipe and rigid pipe. Flexible PVC, as its name implies, will easily contour with the shape of the pool and make for a quicker installation. The problem with flex pipe is that it is not suitable for underground use according to the manufacturers of the product. They state this because the material is susceptible to damage from termites. We have also found that the pipe is prone to collapse under pressure and that the glue joints do not hold as well. Rigid pipe on the other hand, is much more durable and can also be contoured to follow the pool shell by a process called heat bending that we teach via video. This gives you all of the flexible advantages of flex pipe with the durability of rigid pipe. You simply have to be willing to invest the time to get it done.
o Pressure Testing- This should never be neglected. It's better to find a leak now than later, especially if later is after the concrete patio is poured! This is pool install 101, but there are many contractors who still do not pressure test their plumbing.

Key # 4: Good Backfill Procedure
Backfilling the pool shell is a process that can have serious consequences if done improperly. Here are some backfilling guidelines:
o Bring the backfill material up on the outside of the pool with the water level on the inside of the pool. This keeps relatively equal pressure on the walls of the pool.
o Compact the backfill material to insure minimal settlement. Sand backfill requires saturation with water every six to twelve inches of lift. Clean gravel backfill compacts on placement and requires no additional compaction methods.
o Pack the steps and seats with backfill material to eliminate voids as much as possible. This is done by literally crawling under the pool and stuffing backfill material into the area with a board or other tool. It's important to make sure there is at least a foot of water in the pool before beginning this process so the entire pool is not lifted from the ground.
o Brace large steps and benches with block to protect against sagging.
If backfilling is done improperly excessive settlement, bulged and crooked walls, or sagging steps and benches are some of the consequences. We are also huge proponents of clean crushed gravel as a backfill material.

Key # 5: Quality Cantilevered Coping
A perfect pool installation can all be for naught if the coping of the pool is of poor quality. In many respects the coping can either make or break the entire job. Cantilevered concrete coping is poured in place on top of the pool and is a skill that requires significant experience to master. The two primary steps to producing successful cantilevered concrete are:
1. Proper form installation- Because the forms must contour with the pool, Styrofoam is the material of choice. The forms must be installed so they are secure enough to withstand the pressures exerted by the concrete and true enough to maintain their desired shape.
2. Proper concrete placement- As the concrete is placed against the form it is necessary to remove air pockets by tapping vigorously against the outside of the form.
A good cantilevered coping job will be free of significant air pockets and exposed gravel and the surface will be uniform and relatively smooth.

Well there's some food for thought for those of you considering the purchase of a fiberglass pool. Based on my experience it would be wise to devote as much energy to finding the right pool contractor as the right pool manufacturer.


Source by Jason C Hughes

The Modern Fabrics Used to Make Body Shaping Underwear and How it Works


Having a perfectly toned, shaped, and fit body is what everyone dreams. People use several techniques to shape their bodies. Some indulge in exercises like yoga, aerobics, workouts, or dance forms, while others simply use the medical science. People go through operations, lipo sculpture, and other types of body shaping surgeries etc.

In spite of all the efforts, some people do not get the desired results. These exercises can help in weight reduction, and muscle development, but sometimes the perfect shape is still not there. An easy way out for perfect figure shape is the body shaping underwear.

Body shaping underwear is not something new. It was a trick used by women in the seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. Women at that time used to wear uncomfortable corsets to shape, and tone their bodies, which made them look more ladylike. These figure shaping underwear were made of fish bones, or other uncomfortable materials, which also caused skin problems in many.

The figure firming underwear has evolved a lot today. They are available in a variety of shapes, and materials. Without any kind of uneasiness one can easily use this new type of figure-shaping underwear, and get rid of all the extra fat. A diverse range of body shaping underwear is available in the market today. These figure shaping garments not only use new designs, but also new technology, and new fabrics.

One can also buy an all-in-one body shaping garment that will shape your body completely within a small span of time. The fabrics used in this new figure-maintaining underwear are satin, cotton, silk, and several other manmade fabrics. They do not have the uncomfortable hooks, or buttons like the old ones. The figure shaping underwear is made of stretch material, and people can easily choose from different fabrics according to their needs and comfort. Whether the tummy one wants to tuck in or thighs, and legs that one wants to shape, the all in one figure – shaping underwear is the solution.

The stretch material used in body firming underwear helps in accentuating hips, thighs, and tucking in the tummy at the same time. One can choose from different fabrics as each offers a different degree of comfort, and the rate of improvement. The stretch material does not squeeze, or compress the body, and shapes of the body through the fat redistribution mechanism.

In the fat redistribution mechanism, the fat cells in the boy can be transported from one part of the body to the other. It makes the body evenly toned. The different shapes of the body firming underwear determine where the fat cells would be transported. BODY shaping underwear Some Also thru Exertion of pressure firms up BODY shaper , and Largely Eliminates fat cells.

Body shaping underwear is very easy to use, and can help one get great improvements in figure shape, and appearances. Having a good appearance makes one look attractive, and boosts the confidence of an individual.


Source by Jason Longworth

Seven Ways Reading Affects Writing


1. Readers understand words

Readers understand words because they have read how sentences and words fit together, the order of a sentence and the placement of words. They understand the sentences because they have seen these words and similar sentences before. They can then use them in writing or compose similar ones.

2. Readers understand the structure of the Language

Readers have seen the structure so many times that they can readily understand how to construct great sentences. They can see that writers use different kinds of sentences to make Writing more interesting like starting out with a question. Then the author proceeds to answer it. A variety of sentences like Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative and Exclamatory make Writing much more delightful to read. Readers also see that some sentences are long and some are shorter. By varying sentence length, it keeps the Writing more lively.

3. Readers understand grammar

Good grammar only makes sense to readers. They know how different parts of speech should fit together. For example: they know in the sentence "The boy rides his bike," that rides goes with a single subject noun. Thus, they understand subject-verb agreement. Understanding good grammar really can assist the reader in Writing. They are much more able to write complex and simple sentences.

4. Readers understand thoughts of the writer

Good readers understand the thoughts of the writer because they have read and thought along with the authors. This helps them in Writing their own compositions. This is a tremendous asset in Writing. When you read, you follow the author's train of thought. It is so natural.

5. Readers have a great vocabulary

Because of their tremendous reading, readers have a great vocabulary. This will certainly help in Writing. They will use a variety of words, not the same old thing. I have a cousin who was such a wonderful reader. When he wrote his thesis for his doctorate, the words he used were so large and long, one needed a dictionary to look them up. He always beat everyone in Scrabble when he was little, even the adults. No one could outdo him. His vocabulary was extensive.

6. Readers know how to make their writing interesting and exciting

Readers read. They know they do not like to read "boring" books or articles. They can see how authors use words to paint pictures and make it more interesting and exciting. Redundancy is poor Writing and writers need to stay away from it. Usually good readers are good writers. They go hand in hand. One complements the other.

7. Readers can use creative ways to make people want to read what they wrote

Finally, I would say that good readers can make their Writing creative. People want to read it. It would be a book you can not put down. You just want to keep reading it until the end. It is like a bait to a fish. I thought The Shack was like that. It had a great story line, the kind that would interest many people. A good reader can do that. I loved it when my students were creative in Writing. Sometimes I would put a sentence or part of a sentence on the board. It was great to see their creativity using that sentence and making an adventurous story from it.


Source by Miriam Vidas