Construction Site Management – Material Storage

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A construction site has many materials at any one point. Most of these are usually in their raw state, meaning that they will undergo some process before they can be input into the building to form a part of the building. They come in different forms and can be categorized as below;

· Factory Goods: These are mostly off the shelf items, they are unique in the fact that they can easily be resold and are therefore easy targets for pilferage. They are also delicate in the fact that they have unique storage requirements. Examples here include;

o Cement: The most important attribute to consider in the storage of cement is the fact that it reacts chemically when in contact with moisture. For this reason, it should be kept under shade and on a platform, away from excessive moisture.

o Ceramics: These include water closets, wash basins, Tiles and the like. They are extremely delicate and will easily break. This attribute is also shared with glasses. They should therefore be properly packaged in padded cartons and away from areas of much activity, usually under lock and key.

o Ironmongery: These include locks, hinges, handles and the like. Owing to their small sizes, they are prone to pilfering. These should also be kept well locked and only issued under strict accountability.

· Raw materials: This category belongs to the main items like stone, ballast and sand. These are not prone to the previous problems like weather and pilferage. However, they have one attribute that is being bulky. They consume a lot of space on site and require a generous allocation of storage space. These are best stored in bays and contained using things like stones, in the case of sand.

· Workshop finished items: This category also includes semi-finished items, for example in the case of timber. Items here are usually ready for installing in the works and are mostly purpose made. Some may have been imported from overseas and in their exact measurements. This means that damage or loss of such will lead to a very expensive work of replacement. Examples here include Fixtures, timber, roofing materials et cetera.

Material storage is a very important part of site management. How materials are delivered and dispatched determines how easily things flow. In almost all cases, site space is usually restricted and as such, material storage should be very well thought out. One thing to consider is that only the important and requisite materials and items per time should be stored on site to minimize on the risks mentioned above. Records should be kept very in good accuracy of all materials required, ordered, delivered, accepted, stored, dispatched, put to the works and any deficits. Good material storage ensures the following benefits on site.

· Easy movement around site
· Reduction in waste and damages
· Reduction of loss by theft or otherwise

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Source by Kynyn Kamau

What Materials Are Used to Make Printed Circuit Boards?

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Printed Circuit Boards are also called a PCB. They are inexpensive boards that are used to connect electronic components. They are often made under high volume production through the electronics industry. Quality control of these boards are maintained through the IPC.

The materials that are used to comprise PCBs are usually made from a copper conduit layer that contains an overlay of laminate. The laminate that covers the board is usually made from an epoxy resin, which is somewhat like a hard plastic. Most of these products are green in color due to the resin that is used to cover the board, which is a green epoxy. However, there are other colors that are available through different types of laminating materials. These materials include cotton paper mixed with epoxy as well as woven glass with epoxy. The standard for creating PCBs, when it comes to materials, is using a thin layer of copper along with a green mask epoxy.

There are a process of electroplating steps that are then used in the board, depending upon how the board is going to be used. These include silk screen printing as well as photo engraving. These processes either etch out the unwanted copper or use a chemical etching process to remove the copper foil.

Some of the printed circuit boards are comprised of several thin boards put together, these are usually known as multi layer boards. Once the PCB is created, the PCBs are mounted with the various components that are needed in order to get them to work properly. These boards are used in most aspects of the electronics industry and have been around for over 100 years.

Companies that create printed circuit boards can create them specifically for the intention of the customer as well as their needs. Those who have a business in the electronics field can hire a company to create a custom board for their company with the exact specifications that they need to operate their electronic equipment. The printed circuit board will be created from both the conduit and non-conduit materials, provided with the correct electronic components and then tested to make certain that it works properly. It will then be protected in packaging for delivery to the customer.

Businesses can easy find online companies that will be able to provide them with custom printed boards online. As most printed circuit boards are all created from the same type of materials, it often pays to get the boards from an online dealer rather than through a computer or electronics stores.

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Source by Tanner Stockerd

Different Types of Roofing Materials

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Before undertaking a roofing project, someone might not understand how vast the selection for roofing materials can be. Just the section of shingles at the local home improvement warehouse can be enough to make the amateurs head spin. Shingles are just the start though; there are a wide variety of materials to decide between when embarking on a roofing project. To begin by clarifying, roofing materials are the top layer of the roof that is visible. Roofing materials are meant for the express purpose of insulation and protection from the outside elements, with a secondary function being aesthetics.

There are a couple of roofing materials that are made from natural elements. Thatch roofs made from overlapping plant materials and can still be found throughout regions of Europe and the United Kingdom. Thatch roofs may seem outdated but some can have a very long life expectancy and protect well against the elements. Most of the current applications of thatched roofs are in developing countries. But, there are many well-off people who choose thatch to create a rustic look or have a more environmentally conscious home. Slate is another material that is natural and many roofs around the world still use. Slate is a type of rock that can be broken into tiles shapes easily because of its fine grain. Slate is mostly used in Europe and United Kingdom but can be found in some places in America as well. Slate roofing is extremely durable but can also be very costly. Also, 90% of the slate roofs in Europe come from the slate found in Spain.

The type of roofing material that most Americans are familiar with is shingles. While shingles encompass a variety of materials, it is generally used to describe overlapping rectangular material. Shingles can be made from wood (shakes), slate, asphalt (bitumen), ceramics, or composite. With the development of new materials throughout history, wood and paper-based asphalt shingles are used much less due to their risk of flammability. America's most common type of residential roofing material is the fiberglass-based asphalt shingle.

Another common type of roofing material is tile. Tile is made from a ceramic and is very brittle and easily broken, therefore should not be used in areas where large debris can fall and damage it. Tile is a very popular material in Mediterranean countries and also Southern Germany. Tile can be found across the America's as well and is common in tropical climates like Florida. Tiles are a very good protector against rain and fire and this is one of the reasons that it spread so quickly across certain regions.

Metals are also popular materials still used around the entire world. Metal roofs can range from cheap for developing countries to very expensive for affluent home owners. Metals have a lot of advantage over other types of roofing materials. Metal is resistant to almost all types of natural elements and is very energy efficient. There are a variety of metals used in roofing including (but not limited to):

  • Aluminum
  • Stone-coated Steel
  • Copper
  • Galvanized Steel
  • Iron
  • Stainless Steel

When you are choosing what type of material to use for your new roof, make sure to look at every option available. There are many types of roofing materials and they all have advantages and disadvantages. Sometimes going off the beaten path and getting a really unique material can make your house stand out from the rest.

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Source by Philip Hannigen

Material Trends in Exhibition Stand Design

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The exhibition stand is changing. In the past, exhibitors used heavy materials to set up an exhibition booth that was cumbersome to build and to move. Today, the focus on the use of lightweight materials, and in particular fabric, means that the exhibition stand is lightweight and less expensive.

Current trends in the exhibition stand design worldwide include an increased use of various materials such as fabric, an emphasis on lighting, creating a "box" design, building organic shapes, and using bold colours.

Materials
Fabric is the material most used in exhibit stands in current trends. Because fabric is light weight, and can be moulded to create eye catching shapes, it is the material of choice for the modern exhibitor. Fabric can be used as an accent or to construct an entire booth. The latest trend with fabric is the use of translucent fabric to display full wall graphics. Fabric can define the space as the part of the branding for the exhibition stand, while maintaining the open, airy feeling of space, so that attendees do not feel enclosed within the exhibit.

Wood is the next most common material to use, with metal the preferred finish for some industries, particularly health care, kitchen, bath, and the retail industries. Metal is difficult to damage and is therefore cost effective for use in long-term exhibits or exhibition stands that will be transported across the country to show in the various capital cities.

Lighting
Ten years ago, many exhibitors simply used the available lighting within the exhibition centre. Now, it is virtually impossible to spot an exhibition stand that does not include separate lighting to accentuate or highlight products. Exhibition lighting has become an integral part of excellent stand design.

Halogens to gobos From S , from wash lights to spot lights, you can use lights in your exhibition stand design to create a by mood, highlight Particular products, and to create special effects That Attract attention to your exhibition. Use lights to set your booth apart from the competition.

Box Design
Exhibitor Magazine has annual design awards and at least 75 per cent of the winners this year have used a "box design". Although the box can be rectangular, oval, round, or whatever shape you like, the box itself is an exhibit that contains and delineates the space itself. Rather than use a traditional exhibition booth, and simply build the exhibit into the space remaining from the walls of the booth, the box design allows an exhibit to use the entire space allocated to the stand and to define the space without the use of booth walls . If your branding uses an oval shape, create an oval shaped exhibition stand within the space allocated, instead of using the traditional rectangle booth.

Shapes
The use of new shapes is a trend that stems from the use of computer generated designs in exhibition stands. Curves, tombstone shapes, wave shapes, and other complex shapes are being used to add interest and movement to exhibition stands.

Graphics are also using shapes as part of the design. Graphics are now focusing on a single message and are becoming a large part of the exhibition stand. The latest worldwide trend in graphics is to take advantage of the new printing processes and turn walls into a full graphic that attracts attention. Designers are using shapes, such as ovals, to show the difference between the graphic and the wall.

Colours
Colours are definitely one of the trends that continually changes within the exhibition industry. One year aqua is all the rage and the next magenta red is the accent colour of choice. Using trendy colours can lead to additional expense when you have to change the colour scheme to meet the latest trend, or your stand will be seen as out of date. The latest colour trend is to mix conservative colours, such as black, gray, and tan, with vibrant colour accents. However, some exhibitors have experienced success by using aggressive colours for the entire stand, such as yellow, green, or orange. Using colour in lighting is also a popular trend.

The main trends in exhibition stand design are the use of fabric, lights, shapes, and colours to define the space in new and different ways that attract attention. If you want to have a trendy exhibition stand, pay attention to the design of the shape of your exhibition stand, and think outside the traditional "booth" approach.

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Source by Nicola Jennings

Drinking Water Tanks – The 3 Best Materials

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Deciding to look into drinking water storage tanks is easy. Whether it is to collect rain and make your house more ecologically friendly or as a part of an emergency preparedness plan, saving potable water makes a lot of sense. But deciding what kind of storage unit to get is a little more confusing.

Most rain cisterns are made out of galvanized or stainless steel. This is partially because the material is cheap and easily obtainable, and are usually either welded or bolted together. But when shopping for drinking water storage tanks it's important to get material that was specifically created for that purpose, as metal containers are coated inside and out to prevent against leaks and corrosion and to make sure the liquid remains potable.

For inside storage most people turn to plastics like polyethylene. These units are more lightweight and flexible than metal or concrete tanks, but care has to be used in picking out the proper kind. Make sure to buy plastic that is FDA approved to store liquid without breaking down or leeching chemicals over time. If you do want to use plastic containers outside make sure to only chose ones with opaque surfaces, as the exposure of stored water to sunlight can cause algal bloom.

By far the most economical and versatile material, however, is concrete. Concrete tanks can be used either above or below ground and can even be built directly into retaining walls or other structures. The material is non-reactive and may have a longer lifetime than those made of plastic or metal. Due to its weight it should not be used for elevated platforms, but is perfect for ground drinking water storage tanks.

Unlike other options, concrete is the easiest to shape according to your specifications without the help of a professional. It can be easily poured into the precise form you desire, or even pre-cast and assembled at the site for a fairly low cost.

For those who live in cold climates concrete tanks may be preferable for outside use as they are less prone to damage. In the winter a frozen sheet of ice moving up and down with the water level can rub the sides of the container and damage the inside or even bend and break the walls of the unit.

The most important thing to think about when considering your options is the fact that whatever you decide on will likely be in your home for many years to come. Take care and decide accordingly.

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Source by Dustin Merritt

How to Remove Black Mold From Porous Materials

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The easiest method of black mold removal from porous materials is to simply throw away the infected object. A carpet that has developed the typical symptoms of mold, such as black or dark green spots should be thrown away because it could spread mold spores to other areas of the house. Books or files that are infected should also be thrown away or left under the sun for a good while. Sunlight can kill the black mold quite effectively by drying out the moisture that fungi need in order to grow. Bigger items such as mattresses should be thrown away since disinfecting it would be a difficult process.

When black mold has taken root in porous materials such as wood and concrete you will need to take a different approach. A professional would first find out the exact spot where the infection has occurred and would then remove portions of the wall or floor to get to the mold spores. Next, they would remove any dark or discolored portions of the wall so as to eliminate the contaminated area completely. A strong disinfectant should then be used on the area. This is the best way to go about eliminating mold that has penetrated deep into porous materials.

Another way of removing black mold from porous materials is by using a strong disinfectant such as borax powder. When mixed with water, it will penetrate any porous material, killing the spores and destroying their roots. It is best to pour one glass of borax into one gallon of water, stirring until the powder is completely dissolved. Before cleaning the affected area you should take certain precautions such as wearing donning gloves and a face mask. The spores of the fungus are tiny filaments that can move easily with any air currents created by your movements. Because of this, it is important to close all doors and windows while you are cleaning and disinfecting the area, so as not to allow the spores to spread to other rooms.

Before you begin scrubbing the contaminated area, you should first moisten it with a few sprays of water to reduce the chance of mold spores becoming airborne. The next step is to clean the area with a detergent and a strong brush, concentrating on any crevices or fractures that can harbor fungi. Once this is done you can begin disinfecting the area. To do this, pour the borax and water mixture onto the infected area, making sure the entire area is covered. The borax will penetrate deep into the porous material, killing the roots and making the area inhabitable by other fungi. Repeat this black mold removal process a few days later in order to prevent any recurrence of the infection.

Baking soda and water can also be used effectively against the roots of the spores. Similar to the borax and water method, baking soda should be dissolved in water and poured or sprayed onto the affected area. Concrete and other porous materials can be treated effectively in this way, protecting the area with the residues left during the cleansing process.

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Source by Kelsey Libby

How to Choose the Material of Your Cell Phone Cover

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One of the wide ranges of mobile phone accessories is cell phone cover. It is very useful tool to protect the phone from various harmful effects ie scratches, dirt and abrasion. Moreover, it helps to carry the cell conveniently. However, make sure while buying a cover for your cell that it is compatible with the model, you own.

Cell phone covers are made of many different materials such as leather, hydrocarbon polymer, synthetic leather, plastic, fiber, rubber and many more. Some are better protectors while others are more helpful to carry the portable phone with ease. You can choose from a wide variety, from simple to stylish and fancy cases. Here is a short description of different materials of cellular phone cases.

There are many types of leather cases. From very simple leather pouches to stylish high quality leather covers. They are made of real leather which is strong and durable. Leather is attractive and gives en eye-catching look to the cell phone. Leather cases are the best shells for HTC, iPhone and Blackberry type touch screen phones to keep them free of scratches and bumps. Leather is an environmental friendly material, and has no adverse effects.

Silicon is another material often used in manufacturing cell phone's skin. It has characteristics of high pressure-resistant and non-toxic. Silicon covers protect the mobile from moist, scrapes and scratches. Silicon Crystal cover gives fine finish look to the cell phone and longevity.

Plastic made cases are available in various patterns, colors and attractive graphic designs. These cases attract the viewers and impress them. You can select a plastic case of your choice from a wide variety. Plastic cases give environmental protection against bumps, scrapes and dirt. They are durable and light weight, and cheap to buy.

Hydrocarbon Polymer material is also used to make phone covers. These phone covers are more popular in women. They add the beauty to the cell phone and save it from various harmful influences.

Iron or metal cases are also used; they are hard enough to protect your cellular mobile phone. However they are not as attractive as that of leather and plastic cases.

Cork cases for mobile are also found. Cork material looks like leather in appearance. They are very durable and give ultimate protection to the phone.

PC material and nylon cases, crystal and translucent well finished, available in various colors. They protect cell phone from scratch, damage and erosion.

Besides the above mentioned materials, phone covers are made from carbon fiber, rubber, fiberglass and many more. Different mobile covers have their own specific features, but mostly they are made to give protection to the cell phone from dirt, dust, abrasion, bumps and moist.

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Source by Haris Ali

Polycarbonate, Acrylic, Glass, and Plastic Basketball Hoops – Which Backboard Material Is Best?

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It's pretty undeniable that there are a lot of decisions to be made when you observe all of the hundreds of basketball hoops for sale. Should you get a portable unit or in ground? Should you get a system with a square pole or round? How big should it be?

But one of the most important decisions is what the basketball backboard material. The four backboard materials offered are molded plastic, acrylic, polycarbonate, and glass. So what is the difference between them, and how do you know which one you should get?

Molded Plastic

This is the cheapest basketball backboard, and you typically see it on the least expensive systems. If you are an adult player who is interested in playing a good game of basketball, you should generally stay away from this material. It vibrates a lot and the fairly soft plastic simply absorbs the force of the basketball when you throw bank shots. That means that instead of getting a good rebound, it kind of just drops down. If, however, you are buying for a kid, this material is fine, as they are not typically concerned with having high quality rebound anyway.

Acrylic

A step up from molded plastic is the acrylic basketball backboard. It works a little bit better because it can be translucent, like pro systems, and acrylic is a bit more a rigid material. That favors you in two big ways. Firstly, it means that you can do bank shots without worrying about the ball dropping straight down quite so much. And secondly, it makes that it is more durable, which means it can take a whole heck lot more abuse without cracking.

Polycarbonate

Polycarbonate looks like acrylic, feels like acrylic, and plays like acrylic. So what's the difference? The difference is in the over durability of the material, which is especially important in mid range basketball hoops where the backboards are relatively thin (about two to three eights of an inch). If you expect to be playing particularly roughly on your basketball hoop, or even if you want an extra level of assurance that your hoop is going to last a very long time, polycarbonate is definitely the way to go.

Glass

Glass is the material that they use in NBA, college, and even the large majority of high school courts. The reason why it is still so popular is because it is the most rigid material of all, and therefore offers the most rebound.

Buyers should be aware, however, that systems with this level of quality are usually pricier than acrylic or polycarbonate basketball hoops, usually costing at least eight hundred dollars and often more. However, in terms of play, there is just no comparison for the rigidity and rebound of a real glass basketball hoop.

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Source by Luther Stockton

What Are The Different Types Of Tulle Material?

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Tulle is a type of material used to make a variety of outfits, including a wedding gown, veil, and ballet tutu skirt. It is a mesh-like material that varies in relation to its stiffness because of the different types of weaves and fibers. One of the great qualities of this fabric is its affordability, but costs vary with the different types of materials in the market.

What are the preferred materials?

Tulle is available in a choice of materials which includes nylon, rayon, and silk. Nylon and rayon is a cost-effective option and a lot stiffer than a delicate, soft material like silk. Because of its low-cost it is a much more practical option for decorating a hall or room with features like a table tulle skirt. Silk is the most expensive option and is generally reserved for making items of clothing.

A material type that has a specific function is the blend of nylon and polyester. This provides a soft material that is great at holding its shape and a popular choice for making a bridal veil.

At the lowest end of the market is the crafting tulle. This material is great for crafters who wish to make a variety of outfits or accessories, such as party decorations, children's tutus, gift wrap bows, or wreaths. It is a stiff material and can leave an outfit feeling quite scratchy when worn. Because of its low-cost, it is not able to provide the durability and quality of the dressmaking fabric.

Crafting tulle is easily purchased as ribbon-like spools and in bolts and comes in a variety of sizes. Dressmaking tulle is more commonly available in bolts and comes in the larger sizes, from 54-inch and 108-inch widths, which makes it practical for making the wedding dresses.

A further feature of this type of material is the ability to pick different finishes. In addition to the plain material, it is also possible to use crafting and dressmaking fabrics with shimmer or sparkle finishes. Other specialty finishes include extra lace fabric or a dotted or similar pattern finish.

Colors available for any assignment

The tulle material is available in a wide range of colors to make it a practical choice for all types of clothing and decorating applications. Materials in light colors like white, off-white, or cream are great for weddings, while the bright colors are the preferred option for a tutu skirt, bow-making, or party decorations.

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Source by Leo Eigenberg

Damage Resistant Pavements With Material Testing

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Roads, streets and airport runaways, etc., are not the only pavements that are needed to be constructed with the most sturdy and durable raw materials. The pavements of commercial to residential constructions also need to be sculpted with it. Playgrounds to the parking lot that these constructed built-ups are incorporated with, not only demands to be appealing but brawny too. For which, the age old and naturally obtained asphalt, is considered as one of the premier materials to make the surfacing of the pavement tremendously dependable. Updated technologies have eventually enriched the empowering capability of asphalt premixes. Cements, sands and various other mixtures that are combined with asphalt, undoubtedly, make the pavements appealing and robust. Here lays the importance of the usage of first-rated kind of asphalt. No wonder, it gets best obtained with impartial modes of testing and accreditation.

Business bodies those who are engaged with the unbiased modes of examination are of supreme guidance here. They ensure that the mixtures are being done in appropriate mannerisms. Moreover, with the help of good and appreciable certification process allocated by them, a business head gets to gain loyal customers and goodwill. As for the buyers, dependability features of the entire construction get aptly assured. No wonder, each of these facts and facets are the responsible factors behind the uplifting demand for asphalt premix and pavement test. The HMA (Hot Mix Asphalt), mixture which is divided into three different categories like that of, dense-graded, open-graded and gap-graded, are used for producing such kind of pavements. Added with the contemporary testing procedure, the endeavoring attributes of the surface gets even more dignified.

Traditional warm mix asphalt (WMA) got effectually replaced with HMA of the day today. Remarkable and also the unavoidable benefits that one gets to enjoy with it is the reduced amount of fuels for producing the mixture. Again, complete resistance of the surface made with this mixture avoids the pavements from any sorts of deformation. Summer, spring, autumn, winter and no matter what the season is; such pavements are impressively durable to all. With the testing process of such mixtures, proper gradation of the pavements and also the proper gradation of the asphalt mixtures get authentically approved. Every way or the other, evaluative examination facts and facets turns out to be a must for every construction trade. Reflective cracking of the surface of the pavement is yet another negative aspect attached. With the help of such testing, the supportive features of the pavements being resistant to the same get approved too.

Pavements of every other construction demands to be resistant to moisture, thermal cracking, stripping, skids and many more. Fact is it can only be made possible if the asphalt mixture gets blended in a most proficient ways. There are numerous construction houses that follow an automated mixture procedure. But then, that they are using an apt mode of amalgamation for the asphalt mixtures must be ensured with the help of evaluative testing module. It is needless to state that no one but the entities allocating the testing, accreditation and certification process of concrete construction is the ultimate help.

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Source by Rony Sneijder