Why Are Copper Roofs a Good Choice?


Many people get a puzzled look on their faces if you mention copper roofing, even though it is growing in popularity. For some people it is very difficult to picture an entire home or business with a copper roof glowing in the sunlight.

But copper is showing itself as a really good option for roofing material. There are many reasons for this, and as advances have been made in the industry, that list has just gotten longer. One of the best things about copper as a roofing material is that it will not need to be replaced. It easily lasts a lifetime and is extremely durable against the ravages of time. It is also bug and rodent-proof. Unlike some kinds of roofs, unwanted critters can not burrow into metal or eat it.

One thing about copper that is making it stand out is that it is resistant to many natural disasters. For instance, in places that are prone to wildfires, it is a popular choice because burning embers are extinguished on the copper rather than igniting the roof. Snowfall also just slides off of copper roofs. Homes with copper roofing have also been known to survive hurricanes better than those with other types of roofs.

There two main types of copper roofing. It can come in large sheets of copper, or in copper shingles. Either one will give you all the benefits, but it is up to you which you get. Copper shingles are often less expensive to buy and have installed.

Copper roofing is sound from an environmental standpoint because of its longevity, and the fact that most of it is made from about 75% recycled copper.

Some people worry that a metal roof will be loud when it is raining or hailing. The truth of it is that when you are inside, you will not notice the noise any more thou would with any other type of roof. Also, contrary to what some people say, a copper roof will not attract lightning just because it is metal.

Something many people do not realize when they think about copper roofing is that is does not retain its bright metallic color. Due to oxidizing and a process called patina, the copper turns a jade-green hue. In this state it is highly resistant to corrosion. Copper roofs are easy to clean with a mild cleaning solution and a telescopic brush as well.

A copper roof may be expensive, but it will be well worth it when you do not have to repair or replace it. If you plan on owning your building for many years, copper roofing is an investment that will pay off over time. The installation is also more reasonable priced now than it was even a few years ago due to the fact that many roofing companies have the ability to properly install copper. Up until recently you would have had to contract a company that specialized in metal roofing and copper.

Not only does a copper roof have benefits in the form of lifespan and resistance to natural disasters, it is beautiful. Copper adds a sense of refinement and stateliness to the buildings it is installed on, and can add a classic touch to the entire property.

If you look into the perks of copper roofing more, and compare it to other types of roofing, you will probably discover that copper is the best option for your home or business.


Source by Anne Clarke

RC Airplane Scratch Building – EPS-Depron Vs EPP


If you are considering the option of building your own foam RC airplane, then you will want to weigh the options of which material to build it from. These two materials, EPS-Depron and EPP, are the most commonly used foams for just such a task.

EPS (expanded polystyrene), comes in several forms, depending on the application, however, Depron is the form used commonly for RC airplane fabrication. Depron is stiff and brittle, yet easily painted if using the correct type of paint. This foam is easy to cut, and moderately easy to sand to the desired contour. Standard Cyanoacrylate glue (CA or superglue) will dissolve this type of foam, as well as some spray adhesives and spray paints. There is no greater disappointment than to spend your valuable time, money, and effort building a beautiful model, bring out the spray paint and watch all your craftsmanship dissolve into nothing but a pile of goo! So, take special care to select a friendly adhesive and paint. Low temperature hot glue works great, and water-based paints are preferred. Experienced modelers are most likely to select EPS-Depron to build an RC airplane from scratch because of its stiffness and ease of contouring.

EPP (expanded polypropylene) is soft and pliable; and because of it's softness is able to withstand moderate impacts. This foam is difficult to cut and nearly impossible to sand. Contouring can be accomplished, however, with a rasp tool. Cutting can be done with a very sharp knife, box cutter, or a hot wire cutter. Adhesives work fine on EPP including CA, low temperature hot glue, and many others. Painting onto EPP can be accomplished without worry of destruction by dissolving. Beginning RC pilots will be happier with their EPP construction because the RC airplane will be able to withstand crash after crash during the learning curve and still fly.

Construction of an RC airplane from either EPS-Depron or EPP is basically the same, with the exception of the slight differences in technique because of the material softness or brittleness. In both cases, you can use low temperature hot glue, a hot wire cutter, a jigsaw, and a box cutter. The main construction differences come in the areas of the aircraft that need extra support. The softness of EPP allows it to flex. Therefore, it is highly recommended that you add carbon rods in critical areas by cutting a groove into the material where you want the reinforcement, place the carbon rod in place, and fill in the groove with hot glue. Also, additional reinforcement of large areas can be accomplished using fiberglass mesh and epoxy, or by using duct tape. Control horns should be reinforced locally on both sides of the foam, and engine mounts should be doubly secured so as to not rely solely on just glue by cross pinning the mount through the airplane body. Then the body of the foam plane can be painted, covered with colorized shrink wrap, tape stripes and stickers of your choice. Add electronics, control rods, and an engine, then let the excitement begin!


Source by Jeffrey Lawson

Embroidery Tools and Equipment


Although embroidery does not have to be an expensive hobby, for those of us who get serious about our crafting there are certain techniques and equipment which help us embroider faster or fancier.
Laying Tools. When you work with multiple plies on a single needle, you'll need to keep the threads parallel, not twisted, as you stitch. (This is called "laying" the thread.) A variety of laying tools will help you achieve this. The simplest is a large tapestry needle or bodkin. Others specifically designed as laying tools include a stroking tool (also known as a tekobari); one end resembles an awl or stiletto, and the other end is square to prevent it from slipping from your fingers. A trolley needle has a point like a tapestry needle affixed to a metal band that fits on the end of your finger.

Pincushions. Pincushions are useful for stowing threaded needles if you must change colors often. Pincushions come in a variety of sizes and styles; select one that fits in your stitching bag or basket. Many stitchers like to make their own personalized models.

Many manufactured pincushions come with an emery, which looks like a very small pincushion filled with a gritty, sand-like material which keeps needles clean and sharp.

Needlebook or Needlecase. With "pages" of soft fabric, a needlebook keeps your pins and needles protected (and protects you from the needles, too) and organized. Each "open page" is designed to store a particular needle type in a range of sizes. As with pincushions, this is an item you can make yourself to show off your stitching talents.

Many stitchers like to store their needles in needlecases, which may be narrow and cylindrical or large and box-like; some of the latter have magnets to keep needles in place.

Thread Palette. These plastic wood or paper palettes have a series of holes along the edges to hold individual colors of threads, which you attach using half-hitch knots.

Thread Organizer. There are many products on the market for storing and identifying threads you accumulate. One of the simplest is small individual plastic bags held together on a metal binder ring. Storage boxes such as those used for hardware and fishing lurs work well for thread wound on bobbins. On the other end are wooden boxes or chests that resemble fine furniture.

Ruler and Tape Measure. Clear plastic rulers calibrated in inches are invaluable and come in a 6 "length that fits easily into a stitching bag. For measuring a larger area, a tape measure is useful and takes up little space.

Thumbtacks and Tack Puller. Use these to attach fabric to stretcher bars. (Do not use staples to attach embroidery fabric; you'll risk pulling one of the fine threads and spoiling the appearance of the fabric.

Drafting Tape. This tape is less sticky than regular masking tape and helps keep your needlework cleaner. Use it for taping the cut edges of your fabric before mounting it in a stitching frame. Find it at art supply stores.

Lighting and Magnification. Both your eyesight and your needlework deserve optimal lighting. Choose a light that directs a circle (not a spotlight) of light onto your entire stitching surface. Floor lamps and swivel-arm table lamps (such as an architect's light) are good choices. To avoid casting shadows over the work surface, right-handers will benefit from a light directed over the left shoulder, left-handers from the right.

For very fine work you may want to use a lamp that has a magnifier attached. Other possibilities include magnifiers that hang around the neck, attach to your eyeglasses, or are worn atop the head.

Embellishments. Small, decorative accents give your embroidery beauty, whimsy, and individuality. Look for buttons, beads, and charms at your local needlework shop, catalogs, consumer shows or online. Find them also in embroidery kits, often as the focus of a design theme.


Source by Carrie Gibson

How to Estimate a Roofing Job


Estimating a roofing job depends on a range of factors such as the roofing material, the accessories, the labour cost and the kind of roofing job needed. A typical job involves accessories such as roll roofing, starter strips, underlayment, drip edges, hip & ridge shingles and valley flashing. It is easy to estimate the cost of roof material by calculating the area. To start the work, the estimate of quantity of each material should be derived from calculations of the dimensions of the roof.

Cost of material depends on shapes

A roof can be designed in various styles and shapes. The shapes involves a combination of rectangles, squares, triangles and trapezoids. The area may involve calculations related to the basic shapes. One of the commonest forms is the roof without any projections and it may involve simple rectangle shape. The complex ones are made with intersecting wings and projections, which involves calculations of planes and the area. These may involve a number of subdivisions that is added to estimate the total area, which is finally calculated to estimate the job.

Steps to measure the roofing estimate

· Measure the total area, calculated from the area calculations of the shapes, involved in measurements.

· If any material is available, the condition of the material is assessed to find out if the material can be reused, or it requires complete replacement.

· The cost of material used for building the roof can be calculated from the determination of the cost per square. The total number of squares used can be multiplied to the cost per square.

· The cost of labour, taxes and transportation can be added to the total cost.

· The total cost depends on various other factors such as the location of building, the height of the building, the access to material, the weather conditions etc.

Tips to Estimate a Roofing Job

1. Prior research in companies saves trouble in the later stage.

2. Before ordering for the job, the material and price should be compared.

3. Proper combination of color and material should be used for replacing the roof.

4. Quality material should be used to ensure security of the building and to prevent rework in the later stage.

5. The material should be installed properly by experienced workmen.

6. Good material and efficient work will reduce the risks of leakage. It will also help to maintain the beauty of the building.

7. The work related to the insulation and sealants should be properly done and the cost should be used to calculate the total cost. Generally, a thicker insulation is installed to reduce the level of seeps or heat into the house.

8. The cost may involve extra cost of salary and training to the workmen. In such conditions, the contractors may make a high estimate of cost.

9. References from reliable customers of the contractors can provide the needed information about their job and reliability.


Source by Shaw Mick

Advantages of Using Rolled Steel Joist Beams in Commercial Construction


When it comes to commercial construction projects, rolled steel joist (RSJ) beams are known for their superior quality, versatile support, and strength. Since the late 20th century, steel beams of this kind have safely and effectively been used in both commercial and industrial construction, and it is easy to understand why.

In modern times, RSJ beams have increased in popularity within the residential construction realm and can be seen being used in the reinforcement of decks, patios, and floors. Contractors enjoy using steel beams because they are durable, versatile, lightweight, and sturdy. Fabricating steel is easier than what it sounds as the material can be bent and manipulated with ease.

Due to the construction industry becoming more aware of utilising environmentally safe practices and materials, steel is always a number one choice for projects as it is considered a "green" material and does not emit greenhouse gases. RSJ beams can also be recycled an unlimited amount of times, which results in less waste material filling up landfills.

In comparison with other building materials like wood and concrete, steel beams are a far more cost effective option and offer a massive amount of benefits for the contractor, fabricator, and building owner.


As research has revealed, steel has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any building material in the construction industry. This means that steel is capable of bearing far more weight and stress without compromise than a beam that has the same mass but made from wood or concrete. Both residential and commercial builders opt to use RSJ beams versus other materials.

In fact, in areas where natural disasters are prevalent, buildings are often constructed with a steel framework because they are able to withstand Mother Nature at her worst when other materials can not. What would you rather be living in during an earthquake or hurricane; a structure made from wood or one containing RSJ beams?


You might not know it, but steel beams are insanely versatile. This material can be used and reused in a variety of ways and architectural designs. Due to steel being so flexible, beams can easily be bent, shaped, cut, and formed into many different lengths and dimensions. Because steel is so lightweight, framing a building is a much more basic process than using other materials.

In most cases, steel beams are of the highest quality material in the construction realm. However, a reputable company should be selected when choosing a contractor, as you want to be certain the beams have been put through a battery of tests to ensure their integrity.


Did you realize that in terms of durability, RSJ beams take the lead? Wood and concrete beam do not stand a chance when it comes to the tough composition of steel. Steel beams are fire retardant, can not be damaged by termites, and require no chemical treatments. Additionally, when steel is galvanized, it will never succumb to rust.


When it comes to withstanding the tests of time, steel is the answer. Many residential property owners opt to use steel beams in their decks and patios because the amount of weight applied to the structure can be handled by RSJ components. The load bearing design of the steel beams makes them virtually indestructible to constant leveraging forces.


You might not think that a material like steel would be cost effective, but it is. In comparison with other popular building material like aluminium or titanium, steel has a cheaper price tag by a long shot. Due to steel being a better building material in numerous ways, it is the number one choice of building owners in terms of affordability and effectiveness.


Source by Westley Round

Top Considerations To Make When Choosing A Kickboard


Kickboards enhance workout for beginners and even professional swimmers. They are good choices for team drills, workouts and even training for a variety of reasons. The advantages of using kickboards during any of the mentioned situations include improved buoyancy and balance, arm rest and focused workout. They are the perfect items during a lengthy workout since they ensure you push your workout to the maximum without necessarily tiring your body while at it.

Athletes and swimmers can greatly benefit from kickboards. The market however has so many options it can be hard to choose the best kickboard for your swimming or training needs. However, a few factors put into consideration will help you in making the right and best choice with your item. Here are some of the top considerations to make before purchasing a kickboard.

1. The Material

It can determine the quality and the success you get when using your kickboard. It is always advisable to choose a material that will offer you comfortable grip. Choosing a kickboard with rounded edges will for instance offer you that grip without hurting your hands. The board also needs to be rigid which trickles down to the material used. This will help to keep breaking and chipping at bay. It is also important to make sure that the material does not end up absorbing water for maximum reliability and a positive swimming experience.

2. The Design

It is a factor that can not be ignored when selecting a kickboard since it can determine how easy it is to use the board and how comfortable it is overall. The design you choose should not only give you a firm grip, but it should also do this while maintaining an easy position. It is the only way you can maximize on your swimming potential. Sleek board designs will give you a seamless water cut while a contoured bottom will make it possible for teams to manage and complete different race types. Consider the benefits your kickboard design will offer you to make the right and the best selection from the word go.

3. The Size

Most are usually in two sizes to fit advanced swimmers and beginners. The smaller kickboards are best for advanced swimmers since they do offer less flotation support and at the same time promoting kick. The advanced swimmers do not need that much support in floating and are more focused in improving water kick hence making the smaller size best for them. The bigger kickboards on the other hand offers great floating support and is most suitable for beginners learning to swim. Recreational swimmers will also find the larger option better in developing faster water kick.

4. The Cost

It should never compromise the quality of your kickboard when you are looking for nothing less of your full potential during swimming. The boards however can offer you the same benefits, but at different prices depending on the brands and the materials used in making them. The secret should be to find high quality at a reasonable price.


Source by Jovia D'Souza

Four Different Types of Roofing Materials


A home can never be complete without a roof. Roofing is obviously the very first line of defense against any harsh weather, as well as other types of elements which could affect a certain home's quality, appearance and value. Therefore, it is significant to put some thought into choosing the right type of materials for your roof. The good news is that there is always a wide variety of choices in materials and manufacturers to choose from for quality roofing.

To begin with, an asphalt material shingle is a very common type of product, especially with American homes. It will work great for a wide range of styles of roofs and may be a perfect choice for your home. Asphalt shingles do not cost that much and run from around 1 to 5 dollars for every square foot depending on your provider, as well as the kind of home that you have.

Asphalt roofing shingles come with a lot of advantages for your home. Usually the most important factor to a home owner, it is affordable. Secondly, this kind of roofing is a lot easier to repair compared to others. It can work well on just about any style of roof and is manufactured in various colors, shapes, depths of dimensions. This kind of roofing material is also resistant to any effect that great heat from the sun and inclement weathers conditions could cause.

Now, let's move on to the second type of roof which is rubberized materials. This is an eco-friendly choice that can assure durability, cost-effectiveness and also proven to be leak proof even when it's made from various recycled materials. Also, it does no require heavy maintenance due to the light weight and flexibility it carries. Rubber roofing comes in two types: shingled and whole roof. The shingled ones are made from synthetic materials and are better for simple structured homes while the whole roofs are great for a more detailed architectural design.

The third kind would be the tile roofing which is considered as an internationally recognized type of roofing. Just like the above types, this one can ensure durability. As a matter of fact, it is proven to be invulnerable from fire. Also, its longevity could last for up to 100 years and can highly improve air ventilation. Tile roofing comes in various patterns, textures, colors and shapes which can make things more fun upon the process of choosing the right ones in order to bring true elegance out of your home through the roofing.

Last but not the least, wood roofing is popular for homes that need to undergo major renovations. This roofing material usually runs anywhere from 4 to 8 dollars for every square foot. The price also depends on the way of cutting. Wood roofing is essential if you want to give your home a warmer look. It also has the great ability to prevent the occurrence of heat transmission.

Any of these types of roofs can be a great choice for you to make. However, it is still best to consider getting consultation from an expert in order to know what's best for the type of home that you have in terms of safety, design and efficiency.


Source by John Stackson

Advantages and Disadvantages of Inventory Management Software


Inventory management software is used for tracking supplies and creating documents such as work orders, enquiry requests, input / output reviews and bill of materials or BOM. There are many pros for using such an application for your organization. A few cons are also associated with inventory management software, but these cease to be a problem if they are dealt with in a proper manner. Moreover, if you use one of the best inventory software applications in the market, you probably would not have to deal with the disadvantages.


Reduction in Costs

Many organizations invest huge sums of money for their inventory. Obviously if they do not, they probably will not be able to operate their business smoothly enough. However, if you use the best inventory software, you can cut down all extra costs by not stuffing up the storage with unnecessary materials. Moreover, the software will also help you in avoiding lost sales because you will have adequate material at all times, without having to carry anything unnecessary.

High Efficiency

The best inventory software products increase your operating efficiency which leads to more productivity. This is possible because the program automates many tasks such as data collection, calculations and records maintenance. Since the chances of errors are reduced, efficiency increases. This also saves time on your part which you can utilize for other tasks.



Most inventory management software applications are priced quite high, and affordability can be an issue for small and medium sized firms. The hardware costs in the terms of barcode readers and other components can also add to the expense. However, this is just a onetime expense only. Once you get the software, you can recover this cost because the software aids you in saving money in other aspects.


Inventory management software simplifies your business operations, but in itself, is quite a complex product. Grasping the basics can be hard and time consuming as well, and if you do not get the full grip of it, you probably would not be able to use it effectively enough.

There are a lot of training manuals available that can help you in this regard. The company which sells the software for you can also conduct training sessions on your request, but may ask for an additional price. As long as you are willing to put time into this, you will be able to overcome this obstacle.


Source by Anjelina Anderson

Secrets to Filling the Punch Bags


If you look on the internet (just perform a Google search on filling a boxing bag) for questions surrounding the topic of punch bags, a vast number of questions are about how to fill a punch bag. The main question people have is what material do I use?

I've seen answers given including: "fill it with water" or "use sand" or even better – "grass" – LOL. Water, sand is fine, but it really does depend on the heavy bag and the material the shell was made out of … Trust me, if you fill a regular punching bag with water, you could be in a lot of trouble .. . and you might need to buy a mop!

You can not use grass because it will smell. In addition, grass just do not pack well. The bag will be way too soft. If you disagree, well, do this: Cut your lawn and fill a garbage bag with grass. Try punching it … you'll get the point.

So for this article, I'm going to tell you what you need to know about filling a boxing bag. And I'm giving it all away based on years and years of experience at both dojos and boxing clubs.

The first important lesson to always keep in mind when filling the punch bags is the outer shell. I've had many of my students (unfortunately on a lower budget) come to me saying – what kind of material should I use so my aunt can sew me a bag? My answer – if you want to spend a lot of time & money buying material over and over, then you can do this.

Ok, what about buying a sack? A sack is not supposed to be hit with hard punches over and over. It was not made to withstand that kind of pressure. Again, like I said earlier, go this route if you're wanting to waste time and money. The best thing to do if you do not want to buy a punching bag that is already filled is get an unfilled bag. They were made to fill !!! Make sense?

And quite often, unfilled bags are cheap … because it's really the filler for the most part that distinguishes say Everlast from TKO or Aries.

So we do not have Everlast's special engineered filler … now what !? The next thing to keep in mind is the strength / stiffness levels of punch bags. Some heavy bags feel like hitting a brick wall … well, to the beginner it may seem this way. Others are like hitting a bag of grass … Well, not that soft (at least we hope not!) But you get where I'm coming from.

There are a variety of different materials you can use to fill a boxing punch bag. Through years of experience filling bags, the hands-down best way, in my opinion, is to fill the boxing bag with a combination of materials.

Here are materials you can use to fill boxer bags with:

* Cotton
* Wool
* Air
* Mattress Foam
* Water
* Clothes
* Saw Dust
* Feathers
* Rice
* Sand
* Styrofoam
* Rolled up and tightly packed garbage bags
* Shredded Tires

Now, let's bring this together. If you want a good speed bag, fill it with air .. it's that simple. For heavy bags, this gets a little bit more complicated. I'll tell you exactly what we used to do with the punch bags at the friendly neighborhood dojo when I was in martial arts school … Just do not tell anyone I told you.

I want you to look out for something: If you go to a boxing club or dojo, the majority of the answers you will hear from people about filling a boxing bag is to fill it with sand. Sand is I guess you could say, a common filling ingredient … but to people's dismay, it's NOT THE ONLY INGREDIENT in the filler. Professionals can get away with filling boxing bags with sand. Sand will make the bag very stiff. If you're a beginner, no doubt, you will injure your hands.

Here's what the dojos do … and probably nobody will tell you this about filling a punching bag … it's very simple! Here it is … short and sweet:

Fill with cloth. Then pack it tight. If it's too loose you'll have a deformed punching bag that will be too soft and uncomfortable to hit. The solution?

Use fine sand at the bottom to keep the punch bag essentially a "heavy bag" and keep it's shape. Fill the outer wall with cloth. Sleep mats or army sacks work very well. Proceed to fill the core of the punch bags you're filling with a mix of feathers and shredded tires and / or any rubber that's available.


Source by Jermaine Ricketts

Are You Ready To Take The CIH Exam?


One of the common mistakes safety professionals make when seeking CIH certification is timing and preparedness when studying for the CIH exam. A question that often gets asked is "when do I know if I'm ready to try to pass the exam?" Most safety professionals will seek either on-line or classroom courses to help prepare themselves for the exam. It is highly recommended that you complete one of these helpful courses. The following are five helpful tips to decide if you are ready to pass the exam:

1. Have you taken an exam prep course? These can be a great way to either kick off your studying or to review the material if you have already been preparing. If you feel that you have prepared adequately before taking the course, you may only need an additional 2-4 weeks of studying. If the course was your first introduction to exam preparation, it is in your best interest to take the time needed (at least 2-3 months) to review the materials from the course and learn any concepts that you have not yet mastered.

2. If you take a CIH prep course, be sure to make flash cards of concepts as well as important facts that you will need to have memorized. Decide on a certain number of flash cards that you will master each day, then put in the time to reach your goal. Once you feel you are comfortable with the material and you can recall approximately 90% of the material from your flash cards, you can feel confident that you will be prepared to take the exam. Of course this is only true if your flash cards cover the right material, so take the time to make sure you are studying the right material! Flash cards should cover each of the topics that will be covered on the exam.

3. Most courses provide example questions to help you prepare for the exam. You should be able to easily go through these questions before you sit for the real exam. If you find yourself struggling with several of these questions or concepts, you may not quite be ready to sit for the exam. Ideally you would like to be able to score at or above 90% for any practice exams or test you take prior to taking the real test.

4. Perhaps the best test to gauge your readiness for the exam is if you are able to not only learn the material, but to also teach it to someone else. Once you feel confident that you can explain the material to someone else without having to rely on your notes, you will know that you have really mastered the concepts.

5. Make sure you understand the formulas that will be provided to you on the exam and how to use them. These formulas are essential for passing the exam however, if you do not understand them then they will not be of much use come test day. Perhaps equally as important, make sure you are comfortable with the calculator that you will be using on test day. You should be using the same calculator you plan to use on your test as you are studying and preparing. Make certain that the calculator you are using is on the ABIH list of approved calculators. If you get to the test center and learn that your calculator is not approved, this could prove devastating, not to mention cost you valuable testing time, if you are forced to use a calculator that you are not familiar with.

Remember the goal for most people is to pass the exam, not score 100%. However, you still want to aim to score well above the actual required passing score to ensure you have the needed confidence and preparedness going into the exam. Give yourself the time needed to properly prepare for the exam. Master each of the concepts in that will be tested and come test day you will be confident and ready! Good luck, and remember people pass the CIH exam every year. You can too!


Source by Kevin Abernethy